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CNC - NIC Publications

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Annotated Publications

The Classification :

McCloskey, J.C., & Bulechek, G.M. (Eds.). (2000). Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) (3rd ed.). St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book.
The third edition of NIC contains 486 direct and indirect care interventions. All of the interventions have been assigned numerical codes. This edition also includes an updated NIC taxonomic structure (7 domains , including a new community domain, and 30 classes), updated linkages with NANDA 1999-2000 diagnoses, and core interventions identified by nursing specialty groups. Three chapters overview the research and expand discussion of NIC implementation with examples from clinical practice and educational settings.

Articles and Chapters:

McCloskey, J.C. & Maas, M.(1998). Interdisciplinary team: The nursing perspective is essential. Nursing Outlook,46 (4): 157-163.
Discusses the trend toward interdisciplinarity in health care and its tendency to conceal the identity and contributions of nursing professionals. Authors urge nurses to maintain a nursing perspective while participating collaboratively on interdisciplinary teams. The value of nurses' knowledge of NIC and NOC is highlighted since these languages are among the most well-developed standardized languages in health care and potentially useful for the development of standardized languages for other disciplines. P

McCloskey, J.C., Bulechek, G.M. & Donahue, W. (1998). Nursing interventions core to specialty practice. Nursing Outlook, 46(2): 67-76.
Reports on a mailed survey to 39 specialty practice organizations in 1995. Ninety-six percent of the 433 NIC interventions were identified as core by at least one specialty; 82 interventions were listed as core for six or more specialties. Discusses how the lists of core interventions can be used in practice, education and research. P,R

Iowa Intervention Project (1995). Validation and coding of the NIC Taxonomy structure. IMAGE: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 27(1), 43-49.
Describes the processes used for validation and coding of the Taxonomy for the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). A table compares the NIC Taxonomy with major coded classifications in medicine. Discusses how the coded NIC Classification can be used. R

McCloskey, J.C. & Bulechek, G.M. (1994). Standardizing the language for nursing treatments: An overview of the issues. Nursing Outlook, 42 (2), 56-63.
Overviews the issues involved in using standardized language. Argues that proper use will assist nurses to make nursing services visible to others, and will facilitate research related to the effectiveness of nursing care. O

Moorhead, S.A., McCloskey, J.C., & Bulechek, G.M. (1993). Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC): A comparison with the Omaha System and the Home Health Care Classification. Journal of Nursing Administration, 23(10), 23-29.
Compares the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) with the other two classifications approved by the American Nurses Association which contain treatments. Concludes and illustrates that NIC is much more comprehensive and useful to nurses in all settings. L

Code letters in bold after the annotation indicate the type of content:
O =Overview,
R =Research
P = Practice
T = Theory
L = Linkages/mapping
I = Indirect care
In = Informatics
C = Columns/short pieces

Additional Readings Alphabetized by Year:
1999

Titler, M.G. & McCloskey, J.M., eds.(1990). On the Scene: University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics: Outcomes Management.

Nursing Administration Quarterly 24 (Fall), 31-65.
Sections by various authors describe the efforts of an academic medical center to deliver quality patient care and manage patient clinical outcomes in an ever-changing health care environment. One section overviews the Center for Nursing Classification at the College of Nursing.

1998

Clarke, M. (1998). Implementation of Nursing Standardized Languages: NANDA, NIC & NOC [on-line]

On-line Journal of Nursing Informatics (http://cac.psu.edu/~dxm12/OJNI.html) Vol.2, No.2.On-line Journal of Nursing Informatics (http://cac.psu.edu/~dxm12/OJNI.html) Vol.2, No.2.
Describes the implementation of NIC in one agency's clinical information system. P

McCloskey, J. & Bulechek, G.(1998). Nursing Interventions Classification -- Current status and new directions [on-line] On-line Journal of Nursing Informatics ( http://cac.psu.edu/~dxm12/OJNI.html ) Vol.2, No.2.McCloskey, J. & Bulechek, G.(1998). Nursing Interventions Classification -- Current status and new directions [on-line] On-line Journal of Nursing Informatics ( http://cac.psu.edu/~dxm12/OJNI.html ) Vol.2, No.2.
Provides an overview of the current status of the classification and discusses related issues. Topics covered include: development of community interventions, ongoing refinement of existing interventions, need for effectiveness research determination of average time for each intervention, funding for ongoing work, copyright and licensing, and issues related to multiple classifications. O

McCloskey, J.C. (1998). Nursing Interventions Classification. In Fitzpatrick, J.J. (Ed). Encyclopedia of Nursing Research ( pp. 371-374). New York: Springer.
Provides an overview of the NIC research and summarizes the purposes and uses of a standardized classification of nursing interventions. Discusses the ongoing research agenda for NIC, including specific issues for resolution. O,C

Overviews the development and use of NIC for a presentation given to librarians at their national conference. O

Nolan, P. (1998). Competencies drive decision making, Nursing Management, 29(3): 27-29.Nolan, P. (1998). Competencies drive decision making, Nursing Management, 29(3): 27-29.
Reports efforts of one institution to define nurse competency based on actual performance of NIC interventions. Staff nurses selected the NIC interventions relevant to their practice based on the criteria of risk, frequency, essential to practice and/or external mandates. Performance criteria were selected from NIC activities corresponding to identified interventions. The organization then eveloped a list of interventions for which all nurses in the facility should demonstrate competence and a list of additional interventions requiring competency for each patient-care area.

Yom, Y.H.(1998). Translation and validation of Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) in English and Korean. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 30(3): 261-264. Yom, Y.H.(1998). Translation and validation of Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) in English and Korean. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 30(3): 261-264.
Reports on a study that used translation into Korean (and back translation into English) of a NIC Use Questionnaire. Measures of validating NIC, emphasizing semantic equivalance, are described and difficulties with translating specific interventions into Korean are discussed. The author concludes that translation of NIC facilitates communication among nurses and urges similar validation in other languages.- R

1997

Blegen, M.A., & Tripp-Reimer, T. (1997). Implications of nursing taxonomies for middle-range theory development. Advances in Nursing Science, 19(3), 37-49.
Given the broad acceptance for the need to develop middle-range theory to support nursing practice, this article describes how the concepts in the newly developing taxonomies of nursing knowledge (NANDA diagnoses, NIC interventions, and NOC outcomes) can be used as the building blocks for the theories. T

Blegen, M.A., & Tripp-Reimer, T. (1997). Nursing theory, nursing research and nursing practice: Connected or separate? In J.C. McCloskey, & H.K. Grace (Eds.), Current Issues in Nursing (5th ed.) (pp. 68-74). St. Louis, MO: Mosby-Year Book.
Discusses why the three categories of nursing knowledge (theory, research, practice) should be kept separate to be fully developed; yet in order to build a coherent, shared body of knowledge, connections among categories should be strengthened--by building bridges of middle-range theory and taxonomies of nursing knowledge . T

Bulechek, G.M., McCloskey, J.C. & the Iowa Intervention Project Research Team (1997). Letter to the editor: All users of NIC encouraged to submit new interventions, suggest revisions. IMAGE: Journal of nursing scholarship, 29(1), 10.
Responds to several issues made in relationship to NIC in an article by Mariah Snyder and colleagues (IMAGE, summer '96). C

Daly, J.M. (1997). How Nursing Interventions Classification fits in the patient information system patient core data set. Computers in Nursing, 15(2), S577-S581 Supplement.
Discusses why NIC is a "perfect fit" for the Patient Information System Patient Core Data Set, a new concept being introduced as a joint venture by a private software vendor and faculty at Wright State University College of Nursing and Health. Includes a history of NIC, examples of direct and indirect interventions, a description of the NIC taxonomy (with examples), and gives reasons for using NIC in any health care setting or specialty area. P

Daly, J. M., Button, P., Prophet, C.M., Clarke, M., & Androwich, I. (1997). Nursing Interventions Classification implementation issues in five test sites. Computers in Nursing, 15(1), 23-29.
Describes the implementation of the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) in five test sites: Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH; Genesis Medical Center, Davenport, IA; Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL; Oaknoll Retirement Residence, Iowa City, IA; and The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA. A description of NIC is provided along with a discussion of implementation issues and recommendations for implementation. P, I

Daly, J.M., Maas, M., & Buckwalter, K. (1997). What interventions do nurses use in long term care? The Director, 5(3), 108-111.
Describes results of a survey of Directors of Nursing in nursing homes that support the implementation and usefulness of NIC in long term care. Results of the study validate that NIC is appropriate for use in long term care. NIC is comprehensive and supports the interventions nurses need and use in long term care practice. P, R

Delaney, C. & Moorhead, S. (1997). Synthesis of methods, rules, and issues of standardizing nursing intervention language mapping. NursingDiagnosis, 8 (4), 152-156.
Describes and compares methods used to "map" nursing orders/interventions of two hospital information systems to the NIC. Outlines decision rules to support intervention mapping; considers issues in mapping. L

Iowa Intervention Project (1997). Defining nursing's effectiveness: Diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. In M.J. Rantz, & L.P. LeMone (Eds.), Classification of nursing diagnoses: Proceedings of the twelfth conference (NANDA) (pp. 293-303). Glendale, CA: CINAHL Information Systems.
Presents a model that illustrates how nursing practice data (diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes) can be used at three levels: individual patient level, nursing unit/health care agency level, and regional, state, and national databases level. Depicts how nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes aggregated for all patients can be used for resource allocation, costing, effectiveness research, and staff education. Includes 24 variables with their definitions and possible measures that need to be collected to conduct effectiveness research. R

Iowa Intervention Project. Nursing interventions classification (NIC): An overview. (1997). In M.J. Rantz, & L.P. LeMone (Eds.), Classification of nursing diagnoses: Proceedings of the twelfth conference (NANDA) (pp. 32-39). Glendale, CA: CINAHL Information Systems.
Provides an overview of the NIC classification including the classification content, taxonomy, and review system. Discusses The Center for Nursing Classification, and users and uses of NIC. Figures included are: NIC intervention label list, one example of a NIC intervention, two examples of NIC linked to NANDA diagnoses, and the NIC taxonomy domains and classes. O

McCloskey, J.C(1997). Nursing interventions classification program facilitates data gathering, study of nursing. Clinical Data Management, 3(12), 1,4-5.
Describes how NIC is the answer to the questions about the role of nurses and their contributions to clinical data collection, successful patient outcomes, and critical pathway development. O

McCloskey, J. C., Bulechek, G.M., & Eganhouse, D.J. (1997) . Letter to the editor: Toward enhancing collaboration: Addressing the assumptions made by Toni Vezeau. MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 22, Mar/Apr., 1997, 104.

Addresses the assumptions made by Toni Vezeau about NIC in her commentary, "Cost Care by Task/Define Nursing by Knowledge," on the NIC article, "How NIC Describes MCH Nursing" (September/October 1996). C

Moorhead, S. & Delaney, C. (1997). Mapping nursing intervention data into the nursing interventions classification (NIC):
Process and rules. Nursing Diagnosis, 8 (4), 137-144.
Describes the process of "mapping" non standardized nursing intervention data from one hospital information system to standardized nursing intervention language using the NIC. Provides examples of intervention terms mapped for 3 common NANDA diagnoses. Concludes that mapping is possible and describes usefulness of NIC to do this. . L

Prophet, C.M., Dorr, G.G., Gibbs, T.D. , & Porcella, A.A. (1997). Implementation of standardized nursing languages (NIC, NOC) in on-line care planning and documentation. Informatics: The impact of nursing knowledge on health care informatics. Amsterdam, Berlin, Oxford, Tokyo, Washington, D.C.: IOS Press, 395-400.
Presents the implementation process of including the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) and the Nursing-Sensitive Outcomes Classification (NOC) in the INFORMM NIS (Information Network for Retrieval & Medical Management Nursing Information System) at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA. The process includes six components: objectives, programming, database content, education, utilization, and evaluation. NIC has been implemented successfully and the process will now be used in implementation of NOC. In

Walker, K.P., & Prophet, C.M. (1997). Nursing documentation in the computer-based patient record. Proceedings of Nursing Informatics 1997. New York: Elsevier.
Describes the INFORMM NIS (Information Network for Retrieval & Medical Management Nursing Information System) charting system developed by the Department of Nursing and Information Systems at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. System features include automated work lists, defaulted charting responses, decision support, automatic computations, chart forms and reports, and graphical displays of clinical data. The impact of the charting system has been demonstrated by content standardization with the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), improved standards compliance, increased efficiency, enhanced timeliness, expanded accessibility, and an augmented data archive. In

1996

Daly, J.M., Maas, M., McCloskey, J.C., & Bulechek, G.M.(1996). A care planning tool that proves what we do. RN, June, 26-29.
Reviews the work to link the NIC interventions to the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) diagnoses and explains the methodology used to identify the linkages. A linkage is defined as a relationship or association between a nursing diagnosis and a nursing intervention that causes them to occur together in order to obtain an outcome or endpoint of patient problem resolution. L

Eganhouse, D.J., McCloskey, J.C., & Bulechek, G.M. (1996). How NIC describes MCH nursing. MCN, The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 21, Sept./Oct., 247-252.
Overviews the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) and its importance to maternal/child nurses in communicating the nature of their work. Encourages maternal/child nurses, including advanced practitioners and midwives, to use the standardized language of NIC to define and expand their knowledge base, for effectiveness research, for development of a nursing minimum data set, and for reimbursement of their services . P

Iowa Intervention Project -- McCloskey, J.C., & Bulechek, G.M. (Eds.). Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) (2nd ed.). St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book.
The second edition of NIC contains 433 direct and indirect care interventions. All of the interventions have been assigned numerical codes. This edition also includes the NIC taxonomic structure (6 domains and 27 classes) and linkages with NANDA diagnoses. Three chapters overview the research.

McCloskey, J.C. (1996). Standardizing nursing language for computerization. In M.E. C. Mills, C. A. Romano, & B. R. Heller (Eds.), Information management in nursing and health care (pp. 16-27). Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corporation.

Presents an overview of issues in standardizing nursing language for computerization and describes the work of the Iowa Intervention Project research team in creating the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). Discusses the implications for computerization of the Classification now underway in five field testing sites. In

McCloskey, J.C., Bulechek, G.M., Moorhead, S., & Daly, J. (1996). Nurses' use and delegation of indirect care interventions. Nursing Economic$, 14(1), 22-33.
Reports on part of the work by the Iowa Intervention Project to develop indirect care interventions. Defines an indirect care intervention and reports on the results of a survey of the use, delegation, and time needed to perform 26 NIC indirect care interventions. R, I

Titler, M.G., Bulechek, G.M., & McCloskey, J.C. (1996). Use of the Nursing Interventions Classification by critical care nurses. Critical Care Nurse, 16(4), 38-54.
Reports on the survey of 111 critical care nurses to determine the frequency with which they perform NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification) interventions. Discusses the core interventions, those performed most frequently, and the implications for critical care practice, education, and research. P

Tripp-Reimer, T., Woodworth, G., McCloskey, J.C., & Bulechek, G.M. (1996). The dimensional structure of nursing interventions. Nursing Research, 45(1), 10-17.
Addresses the place of standardized language classifications in the creation of nursing theory. Three dimensions of the Nursing Interventions Classification were determined through ratings of similarity and multidimensional scaling analysis; the dimensions were interpreted through correlation of the dimensions with 4 factors obtained from the ratings and factor analysis of 16 attribute pairs. The dimensions are called intensity of care, focus of care, and complexity of care. T

1995

Bulechek, G.M., McCloskey, J.C., & Donahue, W. (1995). Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC): A language to describe nursing treatments. In N.M. Lang (Ed.), Nursing data systems : The emerging framework (pp. 115-131). Washington, D.C.: American Nurses Association.Bulechek, G.M., McCloskey, J.C., & Donahue, W. (1995) . Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC): A language to describe nursing treatments. In N.M. Lang (Ed.), Nursing data systems : The emerging framework (pp. 115-131). Washington, D.C.: American Nurses Association.
Describes the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), a standardized language to describe nursing treatments, and the ongoing efforts of the Iowa Intervention Project research team. The Classification is now being expanded and coded and implementation is underway in five field testing sites. O

Reprinted as:

Bulechek, G.M., McCloskey, J.C., & Donahue, W. Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC): A language to describe nursing treatments. In R.A. Mortensen (Ed.), Proceedings of the first European conference on nursing diagnoses: Creating a European Platform (pp. 309-319). Copenhagen: Danish Institute for Health and Nursing Research.

Carter, J., Moorhead, S.A., McCloskey, J. C., & Bulechek, G.M. (1995). Using the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) to Implement AHCPR Guidelines. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 9(2), 76-86.
Describes how use of the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) makes it possible for nurses to effectively implement the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) guidelines. Gives examples from the guidelines on incontinence, acute pain, and pressure ulcers. R

Daly, J.M., Maas, M., & Buckwalter, K. (1995). Use of standardized nursing diagnoses and interventions in long-term care. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 21(8), 29-36.
Overviews the creation of the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). Defines a linkage and explains the reasons for and methodology of establishing linkages by the research team. Reviews suggested steps in choosing an intervention from the linkages list. P

Iowa Intervention Project. (1995). NIC-domeinen en-klassen. Handboek Verpleegkundige diagnostiek, interventies en resultaten. (pp. A1550-1-A1550-3). Houten, The Netherlands: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.

and

Iowa Intervention Project (1995). De structuur van de NIC-taxonomie. Handboek Verpleegkundige diagnostiek, interventies en resultaten. (pp. A1500-1-A1500-12). Houten, The Netherlands: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.

Reprints from: (1993). Iowa Intervention Project. The NIC Taxonomy structure. IMAGE: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 25(3), 187-192.
Describes the research process that was used to develop the taxonomic structure for the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). Similarity analysis with hierarchical clustering was used. The top two levels of the Taxonomy are printed as a table. R

McCloskey, J.C. (1995). Help to make nursing visible. Guest editorial: IMAGE: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 27(3), 170, 175.
Illustrates how NANDA nursing diagnoses, NIC interventions, and NOC outcomes are the key to making nursing visible. Standardized language facilitates communication, research, and clinical decision-making. C

McCloskey, J.C. (1995). Nurse executive: The discipline hearts of a multidisciplinary team. Column: The Journal of Professional Nursing, 11(4), 202.
Emphasizes the need for nurses who are part of a multidisciplinary team to be able to articulate the nature of nursing. C

McCloskey, J.C., & Bulechek, G.M. (1995). Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC): Development and Use. In R.P. Schwartz, C. Beghtol, E.K. Jacob, B.H. Kwasnik, & P.J. Smith (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th ASIS SIG/CR (American Society for Information Science, Special Interest Group/Classification Research) Workshop (pp. 111-132). Chicago: ASIS SIG/CR.
Overviews the research done to construct and validate the Taxonomy of the Nursing Interventions Classification: Phase I, construction of the Classification; Phase II, construction of the Taxonomy; and Phase III, ongoing clinical testing and refinement. Is an adaptation of Chapter 2 of Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), second edition. R

McCloskey, J.C., Bulechek, G.M., & Tripp-Reimer, T. (1995). Reply to William K. Cody's letter to the editor. Nursing Outlook, 43(2), 93-94.
Addresses Cody's concerns about the relationship of NIC to nursing theory. C

Wakefield, B., McCloskey, J.C., & Bulechek, G.M. (1995). Nursing Interventions Classification: A standardized language for nursing care. Journal for Healthcare Quality, 17(4), 26-33.
Overviews the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). Describes how the standardized language of NIC is useful in designing quality management programs, meeting JCAHO standards, and planning redesign initiatives. O

1994

Barry-Walker, J., Bulechek, G.M., & McCloskey, J.C. (1994). A description of medical-surgical nursing. MEDSURG Nursing, 3(4), 261-268.
Reports on the results and implications of a survey of medical-surgical nurses carried out by the Iowa Intervention Project research team. Nurses in the survey identified which of the 336 Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) interventions were used by their specialty and the frequency of use of the interventions. P

Bulechek, G.M., & McCloskey, J.C. (1994). Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC): Defining nursing care. In J.C. McCloskey & H.K. Grace (Eds.), Current issues in nursing (4th ed.) (pp. 129-135). St. Louis: Mosby.
Provides an overview of the ongoing research work to develop and expand the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). Reviews the research steps to develop NIC and describes features of NIC. O

Bulechek, G.M., McCloskey, J.C., Denehy, J.A., & Titler, M. (1994). Report on the NIC project: Nursing Interventions used in practice. American Journal of Nursing, 94(10), 59-66.
Reports the results of two validation surveys, one to twenty-eight specialty practice organizations and one to 277 nurses who were experts in their specialties. Results demonstrate that all interventions in NIC are used by nurses in practice. P

Corbett, C.F., & Androwich, I.M. (1994). Critical paths: Implications for improving practice. Home Healthcare Nurse, 12(6), 27-34.
Illustrates the ways that home care can benefit from the use of critical paths and describes a process that home care providers can use to develop critical paths. Has an example of a critical path for insulin-requiring diabetics using NIC labels and activities . P

Cullen, L. M., McCloskey, J. C., & Bulechek, G. M. (1994). Development and validation of circulatory nursing interventions. In R.M. Carroll-Johnson & M. Paquette (Eds.), Classification of nursing diagnoses: Proceedings of the tenth conference (pp. 307-310). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company.
Reports on the development and validation of circulatory nursing interventions. The research focused on two questions: what is the validity of each intervention and what are the defining activities for each intervention. R

Daly, J.M., McCloskey, J.C., & Bulechek, G.M. (1994). Nursing Interventions Classification use in long-term care. Geriatric Nursing, 15(1), 41-46.
Reviews the development of the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) and describes the beginning efforts to implement the Classification in developing care plans in one long-term care setting. Includes the complete text of three interventions commonly used in long-term care: Self-Care Assistance, Reminiscence Therapy, and Confusion Management. P

McCloskey, J.C. (1994). Nurse executive: The NMDS is a trend, not a fad. Column: Journal of Professional Nursing, 10(6), 332.
A column aimed at nurse executives. Urges them to adopt standardized language. C

McCloskey, J.C., & Bulechek, G.M. (1994). Classification of nursing interventions: Implications for nursing diagnoses. In R.M. Carroll-Johnson & M. Paquette (Eds.), Classification of nursing diagnoses: Proceedings of the tenth conference (pp. 113-125). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.
Presents the work up to 1993 of the Iowa Intervention Project research team in developing the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). The overall purpose of the classification work was to construct and validate a taxonomy of nursing interventions, one that would parallel nursing diagnoses. Reviews some key issues that relate to the development of nursing diagnosis. O

Reprinted as:

McCloskey, J.C., & Bulechek, G.M., (1993). Classification van verpleegkundige interventies: Implicaties voor de verpleegkundige diagnose. In G. Bruggink & L. Regeer (Eds.), Verpleegkundige diagnostiek in Nederland (pp. 49-61). Amsterdam: LEO Verpleegkundig Management.

McCloskey, J.C., & Bulechek, G.M. (1994). Classification of nursing interventions: Implications for nursing research. In J. Fitzpatrick, J. Stevenson, & .N Polis (Eds.), Nursing research and its utilization (pp. 65-81). New York: Springer Publishing.
Overviews the research to develop the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) and presents some implications for further research, constructing and using clinical databases, and determining nursing costs and resource use. R

McCloskey, J.C., & Bulechek, G.M. (1994). Reply to Edward Halloran's letter to the editor. IMAGE: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 26(2), 93.
Addresses pros of standardized languages: argues that defining work does not lead to substitution but rather gives nursing a language to communicate better with others. C

McCloskey, J.C., Bulechek, G.M., & Members of the Iowa Intervention Project Group (1994). Letter to the editor: Toward data standards for clinical nursing information: Reply to Ozbolt, Fruchtnicht, & Hayden. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 1(6), 469-471.
Addresses issues related to level of standardization, taking the position that focusing on computerization of detailed transactions is not fruitful. C

Moss, L. (Producer, National League for Nursing), & Donahue, W. (Associate Producer, Iowa Intervention Project). (1994). Meet NIC: The Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) [Video, 40 min.]. New York: National League for Nursing.Moss, L. (Producer, National League for Nursing), & Donahue, W. (Associate Producer, Iowa Intervention Project). (1994). Meet NIC: The Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) [Video, 40 min.]. New York: National League for Nursing.
An overview of the Nursing Interventions Classification, including interviews with members of the NIC research team and nurses at the five field test sites where NIC is being implemented. Is a good orientation for both clinical staff and nursing students. O VIDEO

Prophet, C. (1994). Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). In S.J. Grobe, & E.S.P. Pluyter-Wenting (Eds.), Nursing informatics: An international overview for nursing in a technological era: Proceedings of the fifth international symposium on nursing informatics (NI-94) (pp. 692-696). New York: Elsevier.
Reviews the development of the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) and the five sequential, interactive research steps used in its development. Discusses and illustrates the need for the Classification. NIC will assist nurses to create NISs compatible with each other as well as with other health care information systems. In

Steelman, V.M., Bulechek, G.M., & McCloskey, J.C. (1994). Toward a standardized language to describe perioperative nursing. AORN Journal, 60(5), 786-795.
Acquaints perioperative nurses with the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) as a means to describe and document their practice. This will allow nurses to make the work of perioperative care nurses visible, to demonstrate that their actions are cost effective, and to compare practices across settings to improve quality. P

Titler, M.G. (1994). Research for practice: Using NIC in nursing practice. Column: MEDSURG Nursing, 3(4), 300-302.
Overviews how NIC can be used to revolutionize nursing practice by communicating the practice of nursing to others, by describing how nurses contribute to patient outcomes, by facilitating documentation and care planning, and by determining accurate staff and costs for particular nursing treatments. Has a figure that shows nursing diagnoses and patient outcomes for the NIC interventions, Gastrointestinal Intubation, and Enteral Tube Feeding. P

1993

Bulechek, G.M., & McCloskey, J.C. (1993). Additional dialogue between Bulechek, McCloskey, and Grobe. In Canadian Nurses Association, Papers from the nursing minimum data set conference (pp. 158-160). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Nurses Association.
Discusses the three disadvantages to Grobe's approach: the necessary equipment and expertise to implement the approach is currently only available in linguistic laboratories; not every nurse or institution has a computer; and rather than avoiding a common language, we should be embracing one. C

Iowa Intervention Project. (1993). The NIC Taxonomy structure. IMAGE: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 25(3), 187-192.
Describes the research process that was used to develop the taxonomic structure for the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). Similarity analysis with hierarchical clustering was used. The top two levels of the Taxonomy are printed as a table. R

Reprinted as :

Iowa Intervention Project. (1995). NIC-domeinen en-klassen. Handboek Verpleegkundige diagnostiek, interventies en resultaten. (pp. A1550-1-A1550-3). Houten, The Netherlands: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.

Iowa Intervention Project. (1995). De structuur van de NIC-taxonomie. Handboek Verpleegkundige diagnostiek, interventies en resultaten. (pp. A1500-1-A1500-12). Houten, The Netherlands: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.

McCloskey, J.C., & Bulechek, G.M. (1993). Defining and classifying nursing interventions. In P. Moritz (Ed.), Patient outcomes research: Examining the effectiveness of nursing practice: Proceedings of the state of the science conference (NIH Pub. No 93-3411) (pp. 63-69). Washington D.C.: National Institute of Nursing Research.
Overviews the state of the science in nursing interventions prior to the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). Identifies the use of thousands of discrete intervention items and multiple large categories. Concludes with the need to identify clinically useful language between these two extremes. R

McCloskey, J.C., & Bulechek, G.M.(1993). Nursing intervention schemes. In Canadian Nurses Association, Papers from the nursing minimum data set conference (pp. 77-91). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Nurses Association.
A modification of "Defining and classifying nursing interventions." Overviews the state of the science related to the classification of nursing interventions and the need to develop clinically useful intervention concept labels that are more abstract than discrete action statements but less abstract and more useful than large categories. O

Bulechek, G.M., & McCloskey, J.C. (1993). Additional dialogue between Bulechek, McCloskey, and Grobe. In Canadian Nurses Association, Papers from the nursing minimum data set conference (pp. 158-160). Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Nurses Association.
Discusses the three disadvantages to Grobe's approach: the necessary equipment and expertise to implement the approach is currently only available in linguistic laboratories; not every nurse or institution has a computer; and rather than avoiding a common language, we should be embracing one. C

Mobily, P.C., Herr, K.A., & Kelley, L.S. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral techniques to reduce pain: A validation study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 30(6), 537-548.
Reports on the study to identify and validate specific activities considered important in the implementation of three non-pharmacologic pain management interventions--Relaxation, Distraction, and Guided Imagery. R

1992

Bulechek, G.M., & McCloskey, J.C. (Eds.).(1992). The nursing clinics of North America: Nursing interventions. 27(2). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
Provides early research on the development of some of the interventions in NIC. An overview chapter describes the research process to develop interventions. Twelve additional chapters report on a series of surveys done to validate interventions in the following areas: respiratory care, neurologic care, pain, patient safety, patient teaching, parent-infant attachment, circulatory care, compliance, surveillance, family, activity and movement, and fluid and electrolyte balance. R

Delaney, C., Mehmert, P.A., Prophet, C., Bellinger, S.L.R., Huber, D.G., & Ellerbe, S. (1992). Standardized nursing language for healthcare information systems. Journal of Medical Systems, 16(4), 145-159.
Summarizes the state of development and related issues of standardized language in nursing including the Nursing Minimum Data Set; taxonomies of nursing diagnoses, nursing interventions, and outcomes; and the Nursing Management Minimum Data Set. In

Iowa Intervention Project -- McCloskey, J.C., & Bulechek, G.M. (Eds.).(1992). Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book.
Provides a standardized language nurses can use to describe nursing treatments and document care. Contains 336 nursing interventions, each of which includes a definition, an accompanying set of activities that a nurse performs to carry out the intervention, and a short list of background readings. Five chapters overview the research process used to develop the Classification. O, R

1991

Cohen, M.Z., Kruckeberg, T., McCloskey, J.C., Bulechek, G.M., Craft, M.J., Crossley, J.D., Denehy, J.A., Glick, O.J., Maas, M., Prophet, C.M., Tripp-Reimer, T., Nelson, D.C., Wyman, M., & Titler, M. (1992). Inductive methodology and a research team. Nursing Outlook, 39(4), 162-165.
Describes the challenges and issues that became apparent in the inductive portion of the research project to develop the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). Some of the issues are related to the need for a large team to deal with a large set of data; others are related to the use of inductive methods. O, R

Titler, M., Pettit, D., Bulechek, G.M., McCloskey, J.C., Craft, M.J., Cohen, M.Z., Crossley, J.D., Denehy, J.A., Glick, O.J., Kruckeberg, T.W., Maas, M.L., Prophet, C.M., & Tripp-Reimer, T. (1991). Classification of nursing interventions for care of the integument. Nursing Diagnosis, 2(2), 45-56.
Describes the study in which twelve nursing interventions and their associated activities for care of the integument were extracted from a large database and validated through a two-round Delphi survey. Using an adaptation of Fehring's model for determining diagnostic content validity of nursing diagnoses, a definition, critical activities, and supporting activities were developed for each of the interventions. R

1990

Bulechek, G.M., & McCloskey, J.C. (1990). Nursing intervention taxonomy development. In J.C. McCloskey & H.K. Grace (Eds.), Current issues in nursing (3rd ed.) (pp. 23-28). St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book.
Discusses the need for a taxonomy of nursing interventions that includes all direct care treatment activities that nurses do on behalf of clients. O

McCloskey, J.C., Bulechek, G.M., Cohen, M.Z., Craft, M.J., Crossley, J.D., Denehy, J.A., Glick, O.J., Kruckeberg, T., Maas, M., Prophet, C.M., & Tripp-Reimer, T. (1990). Classification of nursing interventions. Journal of Professional Nursing, 6(3), 151-157.
Discusses the development of a standardized language for nursing interventions. The article is divided into four parts: related issues, reasons for a classification system, overview of existing systems, and a description of early work done by the Iowa Intervention Project research team to develop the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). O